What's Going On ?
The Adult Stem Cell Regeneration (ASCR) Hypothesis
There may be a need to change the “growth” paradigm of biology. Cell division is described as mitosis and meiosis, (Watson p. 5, 6; Sadava p. 208 et. seg.; Campbell, p. 217) Mitosis is a process of the cell duplicating all its internal structure and content and then wrapping the cell wall around the internally separated cell structures and finally dividing them completely, resulting in two nearly identical cells. Where there had been one there are now two, working, functioning, growing, alive cells. Meiosis is the process of making a cell with only one set of chromosomes instead of the normal two sets created in mitosis. This occurs when sex is the reproductive norm of the given organism. Prior to mating, the germ cells of the life forms are prepared for sexual fertilization by the meiosis process and each germ cell carries one set of chromosomes which combine together making the double set of chromosomes for the inherited DNA of the particular species..
Simple observation of the growth of many celled plants and animals shows that there are more than two types of cells generated in the life of such life forms. Mitosis can only result in identical single celled creatures. Multi-celled creatures must have a different process. Biology has shown the process by which the wide variety of body cells are grown is stem cell production of a new stem cell and a new 'tissue cell', frequently called a 'daughter cell', Watson, p 763; Sadava, 408. The division of a stem cell is not mitotic, it does not produce two identical cells, it produces one cell that is closely identical to the initial stem cell and one that is a tissue cell often much different than the original stem cell.
This is important because the replacement of dead, dying, or senescent stem cells with fresh newly born ones adds health, and probably years, to all and any tissues. It appears that senescent or damaged adult stem cells are a starting point for tissue failure and then organ degradation with death as the final result.
The reaction to these facts appears simple: regenerate the adult stem cells by stimulating their niches, that is, mTor, wnt, lgr5 and other stem cells in the various niches, and their mechanistic pathways so that a youthful percentage of tissue cells result and the organ homeostasis is maintained day after day, month after month and year after year.
Pterostilbene probably acts as a regeneration signal to mtor in the niche (1) by blocking the mtor signal that turns off, or down, the contact with wnt. The mtor signal represses wnt signaling and pterostilbene reduces the repression. Wnt then signals LGR5 or other stem cells to start a new cell cycle of growth or to awaken their senescent cell cycles which results in new, or regenerated, stem cells and new tissue cells. This wnt signal is heavily dependent on a high concentration of Cysteine. Adolesce supplies the cysteine by way of NAC, n-acetylcysteine. But the signal needs to find cells with energy and enzymes and co-enzymes, such as vitamins (2), ready to take part in the making of new protein and ultimately new cells with new mitochondria generating the ATP chemical energy, aided by the NAD+ precursors of nicotinamide roboside (vitamin b3) which Adolesce also presents. We believe there is mtor signaling dampened by pterostelbene permitting wnt action. Adolesce presents the niche with Cysteine, via N-Acetylcysteine, B vitamins necessary to support the making of new protein (vitamins b9 and b12, both necessary for the creation of RNA and DNA) all resulting in either two stem cells from the one regenerated stem cell, or a new stem cell and a new tissue cell depending on which path the regenerated stem cell takes.
Adult Stem Cell Regeneration LLC
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South Hackensack, NJ 07606
Watson et.al Molecular Biology of the Gene, 1987, Benjamin/Cummings
Sadava, et. al. Life, The Science of Biology, 2014, Sinauer Associates
Biology, Campbell and Reece, 2002, Benjamin Cummings
1.Growth Signaling at the Nexus of Stem Cell Life and Death, Kris C. Wood and David M. Sabatini
Cell Stem Cell 5, September 4, 2009
2. Mild Depletion of Dietary Folate Combined with Other B Vitamins Alters Multiple Components of the Wnt Pathway in Mouse Colon; Zhenhua Liu Sang-Woon Choi, et al.
The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 137, Issue 12, 1 December 2007, Pages 2701